Dark Field (LIVE BLOOD CELL) Microscopy
This article is about dark field microscopes and their uses in blood analysis. Although conventional medical practices do not use this method of analyzing blood too often, there are certain health care specialists who find the use of dark field microscopes functional in the examination of blood cells that are not usually found in conventional medical tests.
Dark field microscopes work by illuminating a specimen with light rays that come from the side. The image will almost emerge as three dimensional, appearing to be bright against a dark background. By using this method of microscopy in the analysis of blood, clinicians and scientists can determine the shape of single blood cells that might help in the establishment of a person’s overall health. This article states that the benefits of using dark field microscopy are the early establishment of nutritional deficits better than conventional blood tests. As the clinician catches these nutritional disorders sooner, he or she may be able to advise the patient in lifestyle and diet modifications to improve the patient’s health.
With dark field microscopy, “live blood” can be studied. There are no stains used in this method, so the blood components are able to move around and be observed. Dark field microscopy allows for the careful scrutiny of blood components such as red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets as they exist. Even microbial and extra-cellular movements can be surveyed.
Only with dark field microscopy can a clinician see a disorder described as “rouleau”, and the article has provided images that would illustrate how the red blood cells are clumped together. This condition is believed to indicate poor metabolism and stress that is experienced by the body. Some specialists also believe that this is caused by free radicals circulating in the body. This condition, once found, can generally be treated.
According to this article, these “rouleau” in the blood also expose the presence of bacterial or viral infections or even parasitic assault that causes the red blood cells to become misshapen. Also included in this article is another image showing how this condition may affect the proper oxygenation, as the red blood cells generally function as the oxygen carrying component of the blood. Since oxygen is vital to survival, the clinician can recommend the patient to eat a balanced diet with the inclusion of some herbs to help rectify the condition. The clinician needs to review the patient’s disease condition carefully to be able to suggest what foods to eat and what to avoid. If the main problem is infection, the source of the infection must be treated so that the red blood cells can continue on doing their jobs to provide oxygen to the rest of the body.
Darkfield microscopy often is similar to phase contrast microscopy wherein microorganisms that are usually invisible in other types of microscopy are illuminated. It differs from brightfield microscopy, wherein as light shines directly onto the specimen, the microorganisms in bright field microscopy remain indistinguishable as compared to darkfield microscopy.
Dark Field Microscopic Blood Analysis:
You may find it difficult to locate many medical doctors that use this technique. The FDA does not approve of dark field microscopic blood analysis, therefore many doctor’s hands are tied. Viewing a fresh, natural blood sample (a sample not altered with any stains, etc., needed for normal microscopic exams), under the technology of a dark field microscope, will reveal conditions of your blood not normally even considered during the diagnosis of a normal blood test performed in doctor’s office or a lab.
However, an increasing number of health professionals have found that the use of this technique allows inspection of cellular dynamics which as noted above normally escape analysis or diagnosis using orthodox medical tests.
A dark field microscope is a microscope designed to permit diversion of light rays and illumination, from the side, so that details appear light against a dark background; as opposed to light passing straight through the specimen. If bright lights from the microscope pass directly through the specimen, the heat from the light source will kill the red blood cells (RBC)s faster. Also, by diverting the light rays, a greater amount of depth and details can be viewed. (Almost like a three-dimension view).
Dark Field Microscopy thus allows a health professional to evaluate the shapes and other properties of individual blood cells, indicating nutritional conditions which can be adversely affecting a person’s health. The advantage of this analysis over standard blood tests, which detect chemical changes in the blood, is the ability of dark field microscopy to detect nutritional disorders sooner, when the problem is in its infancy stages. By monitoring the blood’s condition, a health professional can assist in “balancing” the blood by giving dietary and lifestyle recommendations which can enhance health.
Healthy (Normal) Red Blood Cells(dissociation)
This microscopic photograph of healthy, powerful blood shows the red blood cells to be round, evenly shaped and freely floating in plasma. The plasma itself is clear with a few fat globules. There are no signs of clotting, bacteria, fungus, disease or stress. This is the kind of blood a healthy person should have flowing through their circulatory system
In darkfield microscopy, one is therefore able to observe “live blood.” Unlike the techniques of electron microscopy, no fixative is used so the picture is one of mobility rather than fixity. With stains and fixatives, the picture reveals a moment in time rather than a continuum.
What one sees in the mobile situation are the usual red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma—and what is floating in the plasma. Microbial activity, undigested food, fungi, and crystals are all apparent as is the capacity of the red blood cells to circulate and the white blood cells to devour morbid matter.
As we know, red blood cells transport oxygen to the tissues of the body. Without oxygen, we are devitalized, and according to some theories, the tissues go into a morbid state in which they can survive on fermentation rather than oxygenation. This is what is referred to as anaerobic and it is believed, by such persons as Nobel laureate Prof. Otto Warburg, that cancer thrives in such oxygen deficient conditions.
With darkfield microscopy, one often sees sees a condition called “rouleau” in which the red blood cells are stacked together as shown below. Some people believe it is because of the stress on the body of poor metabolism and others believe it is due to this as well as pH (acid-alkaline balance), wrong dietary choices or the presence of excessively high levels of free radicals. In any event, it is usually correctable.
Unhealthy Blood Cells(coagulation)
Another condition that is often revealed in these tests is one in which the activity of red blood cells is compromised because of infection, bacterial or viral. In some cases, the red blood cells are misshapen or debilitated by parasitic invasion.
In the photograph above, the “rouleau” effect shows that the red blood cells are clumped together and stacked like coins. Rouleau affects proper oxygenation because the red blood cells do not circulate well enough to deliver oxygen where it is needed.
The condition also favors the growth of unhealthy organisms that can survive in a milieu that is less oxygen rich. Fungi, bacteria, and viruses require less oxygen than healthy tissue.
In the case of rouleau, since oxygenation is really critical to well being, the right diet and herbs may alleviate one of the underlying factors that contributes to cancer. However, enzymes, avoidance of the wrong foods, and protocols that address the specific issues of the patient would be expected to be more effective than more random efforts to ward off ill health.
For instance, one may or may not be iron deficient, but one may have room for improvement in diet and digestion as well as perhaps liver and immune function. Detoxification and decongestion can also be helpful.
Typically, a detoxifying herb will also be decongesting and sometimes also somewhat anti-parasitic, but not all herbal alkaloids are the same and not all formulae have the same actions. Therefore consultation with a practitioner who is knowledgeable in the areas that are pertinent is practical and, more importantly, often wise!
If the real problem is infection—and devitalization or cancer are secondary to infection—it is important to address the infection so that the red blood cells can “get back to their primary task,” which, of course, is to deliver oxygen to the tissues.
The idea that cancer is a disease of degeneration has had its fashionable phases and its days of rejection. The issue of whether an abnormal condition could perpetuate itself in a healthy internal environment, what is called “biological terrain” in the literature, is also debated but not resolved.
Basics of Dark Field Microscopy
A darkfield microscope is a magnifying device in which objects are lit at a very low angle from the side so that the background appears dark and the objects show up against this dark background. Hence the descriptor “darkfield”.
Darkfield is therefore the method whereby the sample being viewed is actually in front of a dark background and light is being angled onto the sample from the sides.
Under phase contrast conditions, the light coming through the specimen is shifted into two beams, one slightly out of phase with the other. This gets a little complicated to explain easily, but as far as equipment concerns, you need two matched items in order to get phase contrast.
One needs a phase annulus, and the matching lens objective. For instance, if you want 40x magnification phase contrast microscopy, you need a 40x phase lens, and a matched 40x phase annulus. If you want 100x phase, you need the 100x lens and the matched 100x phase annulus.
Both the techniques of darkfield and phase contrast allow nearly invisible microorganisms within the blood to be “lit up” and seen. It also clearly delineates the blood cells. This method is in contrast to the standard microscope “brightfield” conditions where light shines directly through the viewed sample, and invisible particles remain invisible.
Principles of Dark Field Microscopy
To view a specimen in dark field, an opaque disc is placed underneath the condenser lens, so that only light that is scattered by objects on the slide can reach the eye. Instead of coming up through the specimen, the light is reflected by particles on the slide. Everything is visible regardless of color, usually bright white against a dark background.
Pigmented objects are often seen in “false colors,” that is, the reflected light is of a color different than the color of the object. Better resolution can be obtained using dark as opposed to bright field viewing.
Sophisticated equipment is not necessary to get a dark field effect, but you do need a higher intensity light, since you are seeing only reflected light. At low magnification (up to 100x) any decent optical instrument can be set up so that light is reflected toward the viewer rather than passing through the object directly toward the viewer.
About Thomas Riddick
Back in the late 1960’s Thomas Riddick who was an engineer and chemist, wrote the book “Control of Colloid Stability Through Zeta Potential”. It was a masterful work which expressed all the nuances of zeta potential within colloidal systems and included insights into working with cardiovascular disease which we’ll talk more about later.
Riddick spent thousands of hours researching how zeta potential is influenced by the mix of pH factors and electrolyte concentration in liquid suspensions. Zeta potential fluctuates up and down dependent on the pH, the concentration of the electrolytes in the liquid, and the specific conductance of the liquid which relates right back to the electrolyte concentration. We use specific conductance as a measure of the ability of a liquid medium to conduct electricity. We measure specific conductance on a scale called mho (also called siemen).
One thing fascinating with Riddick’s work was how zeta potential plays a role in all of life. In “How You Rot & Rust” it is mentioned how the colloids can have an urge to merge, how they merge and what they form into is all a function of the terrain to which they are exposed. (And they can also have an urge to disperse if charged properly.) Well guess what? In the blood the terrain is a mix or ratio of anions and cations and other non-ionic substances. Two of these non-ionic substances in the body would be alcohol and sugar. Too much here and you create a steric hindrance - steric pertains to the spatial relationships of the atoms in molecules - which means interference with ionic mobility and lessened zeta potential.
So as dietary habits affect the levels of anions, cations and other substances in the bloodstream, the interplay of all these things leads to an overall measure of zeta potential. If zeta potential goes down - that is the charge between colloids decreases - the colloids come together. If zeta potential goes up the colloids disperse. (Technically zeta potential is measured by the millivolt reading between colloids. This millivolt reading is expressed as a negative (-) number. The more (-) the reading, the greater the zeta potential. In blood the onset of agglomeration occurs at approximately -15mv and maximum dispersion is obtained at -100mv. )
Here is how Riddick illustrated the linking together of various polymers - the coming together of many different molecules - that might occur when zeta potential falls within various suspensions.
As I first viewed these images I thought gee, these are the types of forms that are often seen in blood. And sure enough it is so because the blood is a colloidal suspension directly under the influence of anions, cations, and non-ionic substances which all influence the charge of zeta potential and it is this charge which is the final factor which influences the merging together of the blood colloids.
Mysteries Yet to Unfold
As we discussed earlier, the variety of developmental forms of microbes under different terrain conditions is what Lida Mattman observed. The driving factor is the ionic and non-ionic mix or concentration of the medium, and the ultimate measurable control is zeta potential. I do not doubt that multiple microbial looking forms may arise within equal measures of zeta potential, the determining factor being the ionic/non-ionic mix of the medium or terrain in which the microbe exists.
When Guenther Enderlein made his observations of the endobiont, he was doing so from the framework of a biologist. He observed the pleomorphic nature of different fungal species in culture by varying their terrain, and observed the exact same type of forms in the blood by varying its terrain. This was all observation - and quite brilliant. DNA testing did not exist to correlate the theories. Today some preliminary work is being done on the observed forms in the blood and some of these things do not seem to correlate with Enderlein’s thought process. Then again there are flaws in our knowledge of DNA. There may be fungal links in the blood which will be uncovered, as well as links to “stealth pathogens”.
Many mysteries are yet to unfold. What we know for sure is that the terrain is everything. When we are dead, microbes in our body turn us back to dust. When we are alive and view living blood under the microscope, the worse it looks, the worse off we are. The faster it degenerates on a microscope slide, the faster we are degenerating internally. Underlying all of this is the basic interplay of the electron - anions and cations. The measurement of their influence is zeta potential. Increase zeta potential and the blood looks and acts healthier, decrease zeta potential and it’s just the opposite.
James Privitera, M.D., wrote the book “Silent Clots - Life’s Biggest Killers”. He would like to see live blood microscopy in every emergency room to evaluate all stroke and cardiovascular patients as well as others with acute medical conditions to determine the presence of clotting. Clotting can clearly be seen in live blood under the microscope through platelet and red blood cell aggregation. It is a clear sign that zeta potential has fallen and life is threatened.
Studies that Dr. Privitera has conducted are telling. Out of 45 patients studied with circulatory complaints, all had recognizable clots bigger than the size of two red blood cells. 31 out of the 45 also tested with abnormal cholesterol HDL levels. In a study of 28 patients with angina, 27 of those, or 96%, showed significant platelet clotting.
In eighty percent of the heart attacks, the individual does not experience prior chest pain. If live blood microscopy were performed as part of a routine check-up, it seems likely this potential for heart attack would be picked up early. Dr. Privitera would like to know why this method is not widely used and the fact that it isn’t he finds utterly amazing.
Dr. T.C. McDaniel, D.O., was 56 years old many years ago and he was having definite cardiovascular problems. His heart was constantly skipping beats. He went to the best heart experts in the field, and they could not help him. He searched for answers and then stumbled upon the concept of zeta potential. It was a revelation. Blood, which is a suspension, begins to sludge as zeta potential falls, and zeta potential is directly related to the mix of anions and cations and non-ions in that suspension. Armed with this information, he mixed up and took his own “anionic surfactant”, drank more pure water, eliminated the bad cations from his diet, and his PVCs disappeared.
You’ll recall when we talked about molecular reality that the anionic substances with higher valence like 1:2 and 1:3 etc. have a greater dispersing effect. So if one were to take a proper amount of something like potassium citrate which is a 1:3 electrolyte and mix it in pure distilled or reverse osmosis water and drink it up, that would act like a dispersing agent for the blood stream. And so it is.
Dr. McDaniel wrote a book “Disease Reprieve - Living Into the Golden Years” that illustrates the knowledge he uncovered and how he has put it into practice. Today as I write this at the end of 2001, Dr. McDaniel is 87 years old and is still active with a thriving
cardiovascular-renal practice. He shows people how to eliminate cardiovascular problems in their life. How to eliminate kidney stones in about 5 hours without any surgical intervention whatsoever, and how to never have them return. This is knowledge which is not taught in medical school and is unlikely to be taught there anytime soon. If your doctor has this knowledge it is likely he learned it through extra-curricular training like the type Biomedx offers or from other more “natural” health oriented outlets. Let me give you some more insight on this.
History Long Suppressed
Way back in 1628, Harvey presented his Thesis entitled “Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals”. He stated: “The blood therefore required to have motion, and indeed such a motion that it should return to the heart; for sent to the external parts of the body, far from its fountain, as Aristotle says, and without motion, it would become congealed”. Another way of looking at it is the principle of flow. Harvey knew that disease induced coagulation of the blood. However he found peer pressure was so strong against his ideas that he feared for his life.
In 1878, Herman von Helmholtz established the mathematical basis for the physical chemistry covering the stability of liquid-solid systems, including milk, oil, emulsions, urine and blood. His mathematical theory forms the basic law of zeta potential today. There were many other individuals that laid a foundation for the understanding of zeta potential and its practical application to health in the human body. However, if you ask any medical doctor like an oncologist or cardiovascular specialist - to whom these principles can be of critical importance - about zeta potential, they are apt to say they never heard that term before. This is likely because a study of zeta potential is not a part of the curriculum in medical school.
However, anyone who begins a serious study of biological terrain will encounter the concept of zeta potential because it is a basic principle of the electrical properties of life itself. And in one sense the body is electric–or electrostatic.In various industries the concept of zeta potential is common knowledge. Zeta potential plays a critical role in many industrial processes. The manufacture of soap is one example. Water by itself does not always clean as well as it could. Sometimes the water needs to be made wetter. How can you have wetter water that becomes a better cleaner and disperser of dirt on grungy dishes? By adding anionic surfactants to the water thereby changing its charge. The anionic soapy water does a better job of getting between the cationic dirt particles of the dirty dishes and disperses the garbage.
The area of paints and pigments is another example. Whether a quantity of pigment added to a base paint will coagulate and form a speckled mess or disperse into trillions of tiny particles each remaining separate and discrete thereby leaving an even color, depends almost entirely on the electrical properties of the system.
In the industrial process of purifying water in treatment plants, zeta potential plays a crucial role. In order to get out pollutants, the treatment facility pours in a highly cationic substances like aluminum sulfate which attracts the garbage to itself thereby coagulating or flocculating out the precipate. This floc becomes heavy and drops to the bottom of the holding tank thereby cleansing the water. (Note that if they miscalculate how much cationic aluminum to add to the water, some of that will stay in the water supply that arrives at your tap and this aluminized tap water is definitely not good for health as it coagulates elements of your own body fluids.)
In a general way of thinking which is overly simplistic, think of anions as dispersers, and cations as coagulators. Anions disperse things, cations bring things together. Further, you could say anionic leans alkaline, cationic leans acid.
Molecular compounds are composed of various atoms with electrons spinning in their orbits and is a mix of anionic and cationic components. The ratios of these anions to cations give indications as to the valence of the molecule or electrolyte. The ions of both anionic and cationic electrolytes may carry from one to four charges and are accordingly designated mono-, di-, tri-, or polyvalent type electrolytes.
When the electrolytes are negatively charged(anionic) they are written as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 to indicate their ratios and their respective ionic strength. The higher the ratio the more ionic strength to increase zeta potential and have a dispersionary effect. The right ionic balance is good for humans.
When the electrolytes are positively charged(cationic) they are written as 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1. The higher these ratios, the more ionic strength to decrease zeta potential and coagulate, agglutinate, flocculate, sludge and downright clog up systems. The wrong ionic balance is bad for humans.
Negative Charge - 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4. Ratios indicate ionic strength. Higher = more strength to increase zeta potential. Good for humans.
Positive Charge - 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1. Higher ratios here means more strength to decrease zeta potential. Bad for humans.
A lot of the processed foods with chemical preservatives, pesticide residue and additives are of a cationic 1:1, 2:1 nature. Bad for humans. These foods have a natural zeta potential lowering effect on the blood.
Chlorine is a well-known cationic electrolyte and when viewed in light of the above material it is easy to understand why drinking chlorinated water can elevate the risk of cardiovascular problems.
As it is, blood is naturally maintained in a dispersed state that is just on the verge of beginning to sludge. This is required for an effective blood clotting mechanism so if you cut yourself you don’t bleed to death. The blood clotting mechanism is associated with the release and activation of prothrombin-thrombin which is a cationic polyelectrolyte.
Heparin on the other hand is an anionic polyvalent electrolyte dispersing agent and is used medically to relieve intravascular coagulation.
Now with blood at a natural precipice just ready to sludge, if we add negative health items to our diet that have a further sludging effect on our blood, the situation for health begins to deteriorate.